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文學翻譯原來這么難

2018-10-30 15:33:59

   在中譯翻譯公司,要知道文學翻譯并不簡單,為什么這么說呢?下面詳細為大家介紹:

  In the Chinese Translation Company, it is not easy to know that literary translation is not easy, why do you say so? The following is a detailed introduction to you:

  周克希,可能大部分翻譯行外人都不知道這位如今已然年達73歲高齡的老先生,可在翻譯這行里做的行內人,卻少有不知道這位半路出家的,我國的著名的法語文學翻譯家的老先生。

  Zhou Kexi, perhaps most translators do not know this 73-year-old gentleman, can be done in the translation industry insiders, but few do not know this half-way monk, China's famous French literature translator of the old gentleman.

  是的,和不少即使在全球范圍內都十分有名的知名翻譯家一樣,我們的周克希老先生也是一名可以說是半路出家的翻譯——他是數學專業畢業的,卻意外的喜歡上了文學翻譯,并在自己的愛好和當時的市場需求的共同驅使下,走上了法語——中文兩種語種轉換之中的文學翻譯這一路途,并令人驚訝的,做的不但不比自己大學數學教授這一職位差不說,從某個角度來說,甚至更為優秀也說不一定。

  Yes, like many well-known translators around the world, our old Mr. Chou Kexi was a half-baked translator - a math graduate who accidentally fell in love with literary translation and was driven by his hobbies and the needs of the market at the time. On the way to literary translation in the French-Chinese linguistic transformation, it is surprising that not only is it not inferior to my position as a college math professor, but, in some ways, even better.

  筆者不知道大家有沒有閱讀過周克希老先生的文學翻譯作品但筆者自己是真正讀過的。而在筆者閱讀的那些文學翻譯之中,周克希版的《基督山伯爵》對于筆者的吸引力可謂是最大的——無論是該部經典著作本身就具備的緊湊而刺激感滿滿的劇情,還是經周克希老先生翻譯后,行文非常流暢,不會令人產生什么晦澀難懂之類的不那么好的評價的經典翻譯版的《基督山伯爵》。當然,筆者是在高中時期閱讀的那本周克希譯本的中文版《基督山伯爵》。那時的筆者僅僅是出于一個純粹的閱讀者的角度評價,感覺這部書本身的內容非常棒,只覺得這本書不愧是享譽全球的經典文學作品,壓根兒就沒考慮過這和翻譯有多大的關系——因為,在那時的筆者看來,一本中文版本的文學作品的好壞,只和這本書本身有關系,和其他影響因素并沒有什么關聯。

  I do not know if you have read Mr. Zhou Kexi's literary translation works, but I really read them. Among the literary translations I have read, the Count of Monte Cristo by Zhou Kexi is the most attractive to me - whether it is the compact and exciting plot of the classic itself, or the fluency of the text after Mr. Zhou Kexi's translation, which does not produce anything. The classic translation version of the count of Monte Cristo is obscure. Of course, I am the Chinese version of the count of Monte Cristo in the high school reading of Zhou Kexi. At that time, the author just out of a purely reader's point of view, feel that the book itself is very good, just feel that the book is a world-renowned classical literary works, at all did not consider how much the relationship with translation - because, in my opinion, at that time, a Chinese version of the text. The quality of learning works is only related to the book itself, and has nothing to do with other factors.

  當筆者無意間走入翻譯這一行,并可以預期會一輩子走下去的現在,再回頭看看。實際上,《基督山伯爵》這部世界名著確實非常的經典,非常的優秀,可是,它的譯本卻也著實不少,但在大多數的中國《基督》迷眼中,承認的經典譯本也就那么一兩部。而這,其實是因為,不但文學作品的創作本身是一種藝術,文學作品的翻譯,它也是另一種藝術,一種從傳播學的角度來講,完全不遜色于文學作品的創作的藝術。

  When the author inadvertently entered the translation industry, and can be expected to go on for a lifetime now, look back. In fact, the Count of Monte Cristo is indeed a very good classic of the world, very good, but it is also a lot of translation, but in the eyes of most of China's "Christ" fans, the recognition of the classic translation is so one or two. In fact, this is because, not only is the creation of literary works an art, the translation of literary works, it is also another art, a kind of communication from the point of view, is not inferior to the creation of literary works of art.

  到這里,可能很多人會問了,那么,什么樣的文學創作才叫做真正優秀的文學創作呢?實際上,對于這點,即使是全球范圍內都沒有絕對權威的答案。要知道,翻譯也算是文學范疇之類的分支,而我們向來都說武無第二,文無第一。因為,文學的評價本身就擁有極大的主觀因素在里面,本就沒有那么的絕對,沒有所謂的真正最優者。但同時,我們又可以從從古至今的文學中選出絕對的精品文學作品,為什么?自然是因為,時間最后能夠證明,什么才是契合絕大多數的受眾的作品,而這種作品,本身就是一種精品。這,放在文學作品中可行,放在文學翻譯中,自然也可行。

  So what kind of literary creation is called really good literary creation? In fact, there is no definitive answer to that, even globally. You know, translation is also a branch of literary category and so on, and we have always said that there is no second, no first. Because the evaluation of literature itself has a great subjective factor in it, there is no such absolute, there is no so-called real optimist. But at the same time, we can choose absolute works of literature from ancient times to the present. Why? Naturally, time can finally prove what works fit the overwhelming majority of the audience, and this kind of work itself is a fine work. It is feasible to put it in literary works, and it is also feasible to put it in literary translation.

  而何謂優秀的文學翻譯作品,對于這一點,不同的人有不同的看法,我們的法語文學翻譯家周克希老先生自然對此也有著自己的讀到見地。在周老先生看來,在文學翻譯中,只要我們翻譯的文字足夠的準確、傳神,那么翻譯出來的文學作品的譯本,也就有了獨屬于自己文采?赡苡腥藭X得周老先生說的不夠形象,不用著急,筆者接下來會慢慢的和大家解釋一番。

  Different people have different opinions on what is an excellent literary translation. Our French literary translator, Mr. Zhou Kexi, naturally has his own views on it. In Mr. Zhou's opinion, in literary translation, as long as we translate the text accurately and vividly, the translated literary works will have their own literary style. Perhaps some people will feel that Mr. Zhou said not enough image, do not worry, the author will slowly explain to you next.

  其實,周老先生的意思非常的簡單,也就是我們在文學翻譯中,第一,要做到足夠的準確,不能罔顧文學作品的原文,自己在那兒想當然的翻譯;第二,優秀的文學翻譯,還得在翻譯之時,注意做到“傳神”——亦即不能機械化的一字一句逐詞翻譯,還得在翻譯之時,做到適當的帶入自己的語言,將原作翻譯成為目標語種的受眾更習慣的表達模式;第三,真正厲害的文學翻譯,還得是擁有自己的“風格”的文學翻譯,是讓讀者既能完全讀懂原著的表達意思的同時,還能從譯本中看出這是誰誰誰翻譯的。

  In fact, Mr. Zhou's meaning is very simple, that is, in literary translation, first, we should be accurate enough to ignore the original text of literary works, their own translation there for granted; second, excellent literary translation, but also in translation, pay attention to "vivid" - that is, not mechanized. Word by word translation, but also in the translation time, to achieve appropriate into their own language, the original translation into the target language audience more accustomed to the mode of expression; third, really strong literary translation, but also has its own "style" of literary translation, so that readers can fully understand the original expression. Meaning, at the same time, we can see from the translation who and who translated.

  以上三點,實際上第一點是最為好做到的,因為,當詞匯量累積的足夠大之時,十有八九的翻譯都能做到準確的翻譯文學作品。當然,這也是一部文學作品的翻譯達標的最為基礎的要求,畢竟,翻譯出來的作品就是要讓人看得懂的,如果連準確的翻譯都做不到,那么這種翻譯出來的譯本就不是優秀,而是連達標的水準都沒到了。

  In fact, the first of the three points is the best, because when the vocabulary is large enough, nine out of ten translations can achieve accurate translation of literary works. Of course, this is also the most basic requirement for a literary work to reach the target. After all, the translated work is to be understood. If even accurate translation can not be done, then the translated version is not excellent, but even the standard has not been reached.

  而第二點,適當的帶入自己對于原著的理解,進行一定程度的創作式翻譯,則需要那些真正肚中有剛貨的譯者才能做到。為什么這么說呢,是因為這種自我創作式的翻譯,需要譯者能夠準確的把握兩種轉換語言的對應國家的文化、思想上的不同,能夠做到將某些直譯過去,可能會讓目標受眾產生難以理解的感覺,亦或直接就會產生誤解的語句,經過自己的轉化,變成對方能夠一看就明白文中想表達的真實意義的語言。而這一點的把握,可謂是非常的難,因為一不小心就可能會造成反效果,使譯本直接前后風格不同,令讀者讀起來產生一種很要不得的違和感,這可以說是大多數意譯的文學作品都會遇到的一個難題。

  The second point is that the proper introduction of their own understanding of the original, a certain degree of creative translation, it is necessary for those who have a real belly in the translator can do. Why do you say so? This kind of self-creative translation requires the translator to grasp accurately the cultural and ideological differences between the two languages, and to translate some literally into the past, which may make the target audience feel difficult to understand, or directly produce misunderstanding sentences. Through their own transformation, the other side can understand the real meaning of the text in a glance. But it is very difficult to grasp this point, because carelessness may cause adverse effects, so that the translation directly before and after the style is different, so that readers read a very bad sense of violation, which can be said to be most of the literary works will encounter a difficult problem.

  最后一點,讓譯本保持住譯者的風格,卻又不失了文學作品本身的風味。這一點,恐怕也就只有大神級的翻譯家能夠實現了。因為,這兩點其實本身就有一些自相矛盾的意味,其中的度的掌握,可以說非常的困難,一不小心就可能讓譯本變得風格十分奇怪——譬如一會兒語言輕快,一會兒語言又十分的帶有古韻。無論哪種論調,翻譯出來其實都可以,但是一旦湊到了一起,那么絕對是場災難。所以,這一點,可以說是區分大神級文學翻譯家和普通的文學翻譯家的分水嶺。

  The last point is to preserve the style of the translator without losing the flavor of the literary works. I am afraid that only the great God translators can achieve this. Because, in fact, these two points in itself have some contradictory meanings, the degree of mastery can be said to be very difficult, inadvertent translation may become very strange style - for example, a while the language is light, a while the language is very ancient rhyme. Either way, it can be translated, but once it comes together, it's a disaster. Therefore, this point can be said to be a watershed separating the great divine literary translators from the ordinary literary translators.

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